By Q. Volkar. Franklin and Marshall College. 2018.
Constantine came from North Africa buy zudena 100 mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction doctor karachi, perhaps from Tunis discount 100mg zudena overnight delivery best erectile dysfunction pills treatment, and was thus a native speaker of Ara- bic. Constantine arrived in Salerno around the year but soon, at the recommendation of Alfanus, moved to the Benedic- tine Abbey of Monte Cassino, with which Alfanus had intimate ties. Constan- tine became a monk and spent the rest of his life in the rich, sheltered conﬁnes of the abbey, rendering his valuable cache of Arabic medical texts into Latin. He translated at least twenty works, including the better part of ‘Alī ibn al- ‘Abbās al-Majūsī’s Pantegni (a large textbook of general medicine) plus smaller, more specialized works on pharmaceutics, urines, diets, fevers, sexual inter- course, leprosy, and melancholy. Written by a physician from Qayrawān (in modern-day Tunisia) Introduction named Abū Ja‘far Aḥmad b. Its sixth book was devoted to diseases of the reproductive organs and the joints, and it was upon this that the author of the Salernitan Conditions of Women would draw most heavily. Beyond their length, they had introduced into Europe a rich but diﬃcult vocabulary, a wealth of new pharmaceuticals, and a host of philo- sophical concepts that would take medical thinkers years to fully assimilate. Yet ultimately, the availability of this sizable corpus of new medical texts would profoundly change the orientation of Salernitan medicine. The medical writings of twelfth-century Salerno fall into two distinct categories. Embodying the dictum that ‘‘medicine is divided into two parts: theory and practice,’’ twelfth-century Salernitan writings can be classiﬁed as either theoretical or practical. Salernitan medicine was distinguished by its em- phasis on what can properly be called a ‘‘philosophical medicine. A curriculum of basic medi- cal texts to be used for introductory instruction seems to have formed just after . Later to be called the Articella (The little art), this corpus initially comprised ﬁve texts, among which were Constantine’s translations of Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s Isagoge (a short handbook that introduced the student to the most basic principles of medical theory) and the Hippocratic Aphorisms and Prog- nostics. Two additional works recently translated from Greek—Philaretus’s On Pulses and Theophilus’s On Urines—were also included. Gariopontus’s Pas- sionarius may have served as the ﬁrst text to be subjected to this kind of intense analysis, though at least by the second or third decade of the century extended commentaries were being composed on the Articella as well. The reintroduction of alphabeti- zation for pharmaceutical texts, for example, made it possible for Salernitan writers to absorb some small portion of the wealth of pharmacological lore that Constantine had rendered into Latin. The organizational beneﬁts that written discourse provided were equally evident in the Salernitan masters’ Practicae. These were veritable medical en- cyclopedias, usually arranged in head-to-toe order, encompassing all manner of diseases of the whole body. Copho in the ﬁrst half of the twelfth century, Johannes Platearius in the middle of the century, and Archimattheus, Bar- tholomeus, Petrus Musandinus, Johannes de Sancto Paulo, and Salernus in the latter half of the century all wrote their own compendia of cures. These practi- cae replicated the Arabic encyclopedias in including sections on women’s dis- eases (usually placed after diseases of the male genitalia), yet at the same time they showed considerable originality in devising their own therapeutic pro- grams. None of these male writers, however, broke new ground in his catego- rization of gynecological disease. Salernitan anatomical writers did de- vote considerable attention to the anatomy of the uterus and the ‘‘female tes- ticles’’; that these descriptions became increasingly more detailed over time owes not to inspection of women’s bodies, however, but to the assimilation of bits and pieces of anatomical and physiological lore from a variety of other written sources. Nicholaus, the author of the most important text on compound medicines, promised his readers that by dispensing the medicines described in his text, ‘‘they would have an abundance of money and be gloriﬁed by a multitude of friends. These men began to style themselves as ‘‘healer and physician’’ (medicus et physicus) and later simply as ‘‘physician. Yet even as cer- tain practitioners were able to enhance their social status through their learn- ing, there continued to exist in Salerno traditions of medical practice that par- took little or not at all in the new learned discourses. It is clear that religious and even magical cures continued to coexist alongside the rationalized prac- tices of physical medicine. There were, moreover, as we shall see in more detail later, some women in Salerno who likewise engaged in medical practice; these women apparently could not avail themselves of the same educational privi- leges as men and are unlikely to have been ‘‘professionalized’’ in the same way as their male counterparts. There was, in any case, no regulation of medical practice in this period (licensing was still a thing of the future),59 so to that degree the ‘‘medical marketplace’’ was open. The context in which the three Salernitan texts on women’s medicine came into being thus was quite expansive and open to a variety of inﬂuences and practices. These texts share to varying degrees the characteristics of ‘‘main- stream’’ Salernitan medical writings, Conditions of Women with its attempts to assimilate Arabic medicine, Treatments for Women with its collection of tra- ditional local practices.
Killing two birds with one stone buy discount zudena 100mg line erectile dysfunction drug related, serving a very useful survival purpose while providing aerobic exercise 100 mg zudena free shipping impotence over 60. Depending on the physical shape of the shelter other options for aerobic exercise include skipping or sprint starts against resistance (such as a bungy). Anaerobic exercise is much for easier to perform with limited space using free weights, press-ups, and chin-ups, etc. It should be built into the daily timetable as a scheduled activity and should be compulsory. The importance of exercise has to be balanced against the energy expended undertaking it. If you are relying on a very simple food storage programme with only the core staples then you will have problems quickly. If you have stored a broad range of items, and tinned, and bottled foods in addition to dry staples then it will be less of a problem. If you are in the former group as an absolute minimum you should ensure that you have an adequate supply of multivitamin supplements If you are planning long-term shelter living you should give serious thought to developing a system for gardening within your shelter. Hydroponics is the obvious solution and can be relatively easily grown in a shelter type environment, however, it still requires large amounts of light, water, and nutrients to grow. The nutrient value depends on the type of bean used, how long it is allowed to grow, and the - 88 - Survival and Austere Medicine: An Introduction amount of light it is exposed to. The more light and the longer the growth period the more vitamin A and C will be present with peak levels present at 8 days. In uncooked legumes (beans, peas, lentils) an enzyme which blocks the absorption of protein, is present. The Prudent Pantry, A T Hagan, 1999 – no out of print) - 89 - Survival and Austere Medicine: An Introduction Chapter 11 Long-term austere medicine Introduction Most of what is discussed in this book is related to a short to medium term disasters with serious disruption of medical services, but with a view to eventual recovery to a high technological level in the short to median term, certainly within a generation. The above paints a possible scenario for what may happen in a major long term disaster – a complete permanent collapse of society and, with that medical services; no hospitals, no new supplies or medications, no medical schools, and no prospect of a significant degree of technological recovery. Depending on your level of preparedness (or paranoia) possible scenarios include comet strike, massive climate change, global pandemic, or worldwide nuclear war any of which would result in complete disruption of infrastructure, and knowledge, and an inability to recover to today’s modern level. While all the principles discussed in other sections apply to the early stages of these sorts of disasters what happens when things run out for good, or the doctor/medic in your group is getting old, or dies raises a whole series of other issues. In this section we cover some of the main issues about long-term medical care in a primitive / austere environment. It is not a “how-to” chapter but more a discussion of likely scenarios and thoughts about what is possible and what is not. Despite the pessimistic picture painted in the scenario above with planning and thought it is possible to maintain a surprisingly high level of medical care. We are not talking heart transplants and high-level intensive care, but we are talking quality medical care which can manage even if it cannot cure common medical problems. While at first thought it may appear that the loss of modern technology and medication will place medical care back to the dark ages it is important not to forget that the knowledge underpinning modern medicine is still there. While there may be no antibiotics for your dirty wound you still have an understanding of what causes infection, basic hygiene measures, and good basic wound care so while you may not have antibiotics to prevent or treat infection you will still know how to minimise the chance of infection, and optimise healing, and hopefully a knowledge of other substances with antibacterial properties. For this reason it is extremely important that you have a comprehensive medical library to begin with and that there is a priority to preserve the knowledge the books contain. Having several people with detailed medical knowledge initially is ideal but this for many may not be possible. It is important that there is a degree of cross training within the group at least at a basic level. When it is apparent that a - 90 - Survival and Austere Medicine: An Introduction disaster is likely to be prolonged it is vital that you begin to train someone to the same level as yourself; the best way is probably using an apprenticeship model over several years. This was the way the majority of western doctors (Middle Eastern cultures th have had medical schools for the last 1500 years) were taught until the 17 century when the medical schools took over, and apprenticeships were still common up until early last century although they were considered inferior. Unfortunately learning medicine simply from a book is inadequate and having supervised experience in addition to books is the only real way to learn. For this reason if you are considering a long-term collapse ensure that you also have the resources to teach the basics of biological sciences first before moving onto medicine proper. It would be difficult to teach someone the complexities of medicine without a good understanding of the basics. In addition to modern medical knowledge, if you are planning for a multi-generational catastrophe then you need to study medical history. The practice of medicine in the th th 18 and 19 Century provides, in our opinion, what we may realistically expect in terms of a technological level in medicine with our modern knowledge superimposed over the top.
An 11-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis is admitted to the hospital 18 hours after the onset of shortness of breath discount zudena 100mg with mastercard causes of erectile dysfunction include quizlet. During the past 11 years generic zudena 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment options articles, she has had more than 20 episodes of respiratory exacerbations of her cystic fibrosis that have required hospitalization. Current medications include an inhaled bronchodilator, inhaled corticosteroid, oral pancreatic enzyme, and oral multivitamin. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient’s recurrent respiratory tract infections? A 3-week-old infant is brought to the physician by his mother because of a 1-week history of increasingly frequent vomiting. She says that at first he vomited occasionally, but now he vomits after every feeding. A 1 × 2-cm, firm, mobile, olive-shaped mass is palpated immediately to the left of the epigastrium. A 15-year-old girl is brought to the physician by her mother because of a 1-year history of monthly cramps that begin 2 days before menses and last 3 days. She is unable to practice with her volleyball team because of the pain and typically misses 2 days of school monthly. A 5-year-old girl is brought to the physician by her parents for evaluation of recurrent injuries. Her parents say that she started walking at the age of 14 months and since then has always seemed clumsier and had more injuries than other children. She has had increasingly frequent pain with exertion since starting a soccer program 3 months ago. She has been taken to the emergency department three times during the past 3 weeks because of concern about possible fractures; x-rays showed no abnormalities. Examination shows numerous paper-like scars over the torso and upper and lower extremities. The hips and the joints of the upper and lower extremities are hypermobile, including 25 degrees of genu recurvatum, thumbs that may be extended to touch the forearms, and flexibility at the waist, with palms easily touching the floor with straight knees. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this patient’s physical findings? B - 113 - Psychiatry Systems General Principles, Including Normal Age-Related Findings and Care of the Well Patient 5%–10% Behavioral Health 65%–70% Normal processes, including adaptive behavioral responses to stress and illness Psychotic disorders Anxiety disorders Mood disorders Somatic symptoms and related disorders Factitious disorders Eating disorders and impulse control disorders Disorders originating in infancy/childhood Personality disorders Psychosocial disorders/behaviors Substance abuse disorders Adverse effects of drugs Nervous System & Special Senses 10%–15% Other Systems, including Multisystem Processes & Disorders 5%–10% Social Sciences 1%–5% Communication and interpersonal skills Medical ethics and jurisprudence Physician Task Diagnosis, including Foundational Science Concepts 65%–70% Pharmacotherapy, Intervention & Management 30%–35% Site of Care Ambulatory 60%–65% Emergency Department 20%–30% Inpatient 5%–10% Patient Age Birth to 12 10%–15% 13 and older 85%–90% - 114 - 1. A 3-year-old girl is brought to the physician by her parents because they are concerned about her behavior. She often refuses to comply with their requests and sometimes throws 3- to 5-minute temper tantrums. They report that she dawdles at bedtime and requires frequent direction and assistance in preparing for bed. Her preschool teacher notes that she is active and talkative without being disruptive and is beginning to demonstrate more interactive play with her peers. Her first word was at the age of 11 months, and she began walking without assistance at the age of 14 months. On mental status examination, she initially hides behind her mother but warms to the interviewer after a few minutes and begins playing with toys in the office. He has been drinking heavily since he was passed over for a job promotion 3 days ago. He has no personal history of psychiatric disorders and no personal or family history of alcohol abuse. When asked what he will do, he states, “I don’t know, but if I don’t go back to work tomorrow, I’ll lose my job. A previously healthy 18-year-old woman is brought to the physician for evaluation because of loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and extreme irritability for 3 weeks. After missing many practices, she quit the college softball team that she previously enjoyed. She often feels tired and has difficulty sitting still and concentrating on schoolwork. A 57-year-old man comes to the physician accompanied by his wife because of a 2-year history of fatigue.
After 1 year of age cheap 100 mg zudena erectile dysfunction by country, there is a further increase in brain weight up to 5 years of age (approximately 1 cheap zudena 100mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment delhi,300 g in boys and 1,150 g in girls). The consumption of glucose by the brain after age 1 year also remains rather constant or increases modestly and is in the range reported for adults (approximately 31 µmol/100 g of brain/min) (Kennedy and Sokoloff, 1957; Sokoloff et al. The amount of glucose produced from obligatory endogenous protein catabolism in children is not known. Children ages 2 to 9 years have requirements for carbohydrate that are similar to adults. This is based on population data in which animal-derived foods are ingested exclusively (e. In these children, the ketoacid concentration was in the range of 2 to 3 mmol/L (i. Long-term data in Westernized popula- tions, which could determine the minimal amount of carbohydrate com- patible with metabolic requirements and for optimization of health, are not available. This amount of glucose should be sufficient to supply the brain with fuel in the absence of a rise in circulating aceto- acetate and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations greater than that observed in an individual after an overnight fast (see “Evidence Considered for Estimating the Average Requirement for Carbohydrate”). This assumes the consumption of an energy-sufficient diet containing an Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range of carbohydrate intake (approximately 45 to 65 percent of energy) (see Chapter 11). Data on glucose consumption by the brain for various age groups using information from Dobbing and Sands (1973) and Dekaban and Sadowsky (1978) were also used, which corre- lated weight of the brain with body weight. The average rate of brain glucose utilization in the postabsorptive state of adults based on several studies is approximately 33 µmol/100 g of brain/min (5. Based on these data, the brain’s requirement for carbohydrate is in the range of approximately 117 to 142 g/d (Gottstein and Held, 1979; Reinmuth et al. Regardless of age and the associated change in brain mass, the glucose utilization rate/100 g of brain tissue remains rather constant, at least up to age 73 years (Reinmuth et al. In 351 men (aged 21 to 39 years), the average brain weight at autopsy was reported to be 1. There was excellent correlation between body weight and height and brain weight in adults of all ages. Therefore, the overall dietary carbohydrate requirement in the presence of an energy-adequate diet would be approximately 87 (117 – 30) to 112 (142 – 30) g/d. This amount of carbohydrate is similar to that reported to be required for the prevention of ketosis (50 to 100 g) (Bell et al. The carbohydrate requirement is modestly greater than the potential glucose that can be derived from an amount of ingested protein required for nitrogen balance in people ingesting a carbohydrate-free diet (Azar and Bloom, 1963). This amount of carbohydrate will not provide sufficient fuel for those cells that are dependent on anaerobic glycolysis for their energy supply (e. That is, the cyclic interconversion of glucose with lactate or alanine occurs without a net loss of carbon. The amount of dietary protein required approaches the theoretical maximal rate of gluconeogenesis from amino acids in the liver (135 g of glucose/24 h) (Brosnan, 1999). This amount should be sufficient to fuel central nervous system cells without having to rely on a partial replacement of glucose by ketoacids. Although the latter are used by the brain in a concentration-dependent fashion (Sokoloff, 1973), their utilization only becomes quantitatively significant when the supply of glucose is considerably reduced and their circulating concentra- tion has increased several-fold over that present after an overnight fast. Never- theless, it should be recognized that the brain can still receive enough glucose from the metabolism of the glycerol component of fat and from the gluconeogenic amino acids in protein when a very low carbohydrate diet is consumed. It is well known that the overall rate of energy metabolism decreases with aging (Roberts, 2000a). In adults 70 years of age or older, the glucose oxidation rate was only about 10 percent less than in young adults between 19 and 29 years of age (Robert et al. This decrease is similar to that reported from autopsy data in Japan (mean 1,422 to 1,336 g) (Yamaura et al. Whether glucose oxidation changes out of proportion to brain mass remains a controversial issue (Gottstein and Held, 1979; Leenders et al.
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