By B. Mitch. Saint Louis Christian College.
The pathophysiology is uncer- tain cheap 10mg levitra fast delivery impotence your 20s, but ischemia of the thoracic watershed zone of the anterior spinal artery from compression at the cervical level has been suggested purchase levitra 10mg erectile dysfunction related to prostate. References Ochiai H, Yamakawa Y, Minato S, Nakahara K, Nakano S, Wakisaka S. Clinical features of the localized girdle sensation of mid-trunk (false localizing sign) appeared [sic] in cervical compressive myelopathy patients. Journal of Neurology 2002; 249: 549-553 Cross References “false-localizing signs”; Paraparesis; Suspended sensory loss “Give-Way” Weakness - see COLLAPSING WEAKNESS; FUNCTIONAL WEAKNESS AND SENSORY DISTURBANCE Glabellar Tap Reflex The glabellar tap reflex, also known as Myerson’s sign or the nasopalpebral reflex, is elicited by repeated gentle tapping with a finger on the forehead, preferably with irregular cadence and so that the patient cannot see the finger (to avoid blinking due to the threat or menace reflex), while observing the eyelids blink (i. Usually, reflexive blinking in response to tapping habituates quickly, but in extrapyramidal disorders it may not do so. This sign was once thought useful for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease but in fact it is fairly nonspecific, occurring in many akinetic-rigid disorders. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2003; 74: 558-560 Cross References Blink reflex; Parkinsonism - 137 - G Glossolalia Glossolalia Glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, may be considered a normal phe- nomenon in certain Christian denominations, as divinely inspired, since it is mentioned in the Bible (1 Corinthians, 14:27-33, although St. Paul speaks of the importance of an interpreter, since “God is not the author of confusion”), but it is not confined to Christianity or even overtly religious environments. Others conceptualize glossolalia as a form of automatic speech, usually of a pseudo-language which may be mistaken for a foreign tongue. Such happenings may occur in trance- like states, or in pathological states, such as schizophrenia. London: Arnold, 2001: 237-240 “Glove and Stocking” Sensory Loss Sensory loss, to all or selected modalities, confined to the distal parts of the limbs (“glove and stocking”) implies the presence of a periph- eral sensory neuropathy. If the neuropathy involves both sensory and motor fibers, motor signs (distal weakness, reflex diminution or loss) may also be present. Cross References Neuropathy Goosebumps - see ANSERINA Gordon’s Sign Gordon’s sign is an extensor plantar response in response to squeezing the calf muscles, also called the paradoxical flexor response. As with Chaddock’s sign and Oppenheim’s sign, this reflects an expansion of the receptive field of the reflex. Cross References Babinski’s sign (1); Plantar response Gowers’ Sign Gowers’ sign is a characteristic maneuver used by patients with proxi- mal lower limb and trunk weakness to rise from the ground. From the lying position, the patient rolls to the kneeling position, pushes on the ground with extended forearms to lift the hips and straighten the legs, so forming a triangle with the hips at the apex with hands and feet on the floor forming the base (known in North America as the “butt-first maneuver”). Then the hands are used to push on the knees and so lift up the trunk (“climbing up oneself”). This sign was originally described by Gowers in the context of Duchenne muscular dystrophy but may be seen in other causes of proximal leg and trunk weakness, e. Gowers was not the first to describe the sign; Bell had reported it almost 50 years before Gowers’ account. London: Imperial College Press, 2003: 378-380 Graefe’s Sign - see VON GRAEFE’S SIGN Graphanesthesia - see AGRAPHESTHESIA Graphesthesia Graphesthesia is the ability to identify numbers or letters written or traced on the skin, first described by Head in 1920. Loss of this ability (agraphesthesia, dysgraphesthesia, or graphanesthesia; sometimes referred to as agraphognosia) is typically observed with parietal lobe lesions, for example in conditions such as corticobasal degeneration. Such a cortical sensory syndrome may also cause astereognosis and impaired two-point discrimination. Cross References Agraphesthesia; Astereognosis; Two-point discrimination Graphospasm - see WRITER’S CRAMP Grasp Reflex The grasp reflex consists of progressive forced closure of the hand (contraction of flexor and adductor muscles) when tactile stimulation (e. Once established, the patient is unable to release the grip (forced grasping), allowing the examiner to draw the arm away from the patient’s body. There may also be accom- panying groping movements of the hand, once touched, in search of the examiner’s hand or clothing (forced groping, magnetic movement). Although categorized a reflex, it may sometimes be accessible to mod- ification by will (so-called alien grasp reflex). The grasp reflex may be categorized as a frontal release sign (or primitive reflex) of prehensile type, since it is most commonly associ- ated with lesion(s) in the frontal lobes or deep nuclei and subcortical white matter. Clinicoradiological correlations suggest the cingulate gyrus is the structure most commonly involved, followed by the supplementary motor area. The incidence of the grasp reflex following hemispheric lesion and its relation to frontal damage. Brain 1992; 115: 293-313 - 139 - G Guttmann’s Sign Schott JM, Rossor MN. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2003; 74: 558-560 Cross References Akinetic mutism; Alien grasp reflex; Frontal release signs Guttmann’s Sign Guttmann’s sign is autonomic overactivity occurring as a feature of the acute phase of high spinal cord lesions, which may manifest with facial vasodilatation associated with nasal congestion, hypertension, bradycardia, sweating, mydriasis and piloerection. It may be observed in chronic liver disease and in certain neurological diseases: Excessive pituitary prolactin release secondary to impaired dopamine release from the hypothalamus due to local tumor or treatment with dopaminergic antagonist drugs (e.
Aronsson DD buy cheap levitra 20 mg on-line erectile dysfunction drug companies, Lorder RT cheap levitra 20 mg amex erectile dysfunction drugs that cause, et al (1996) Treatment of the unstable (acute) slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Casey BH, Hamilton HW, Bobechko WP (1972) Reduction of acutely slipped upper femoral epiphysis. Kita A, Morito N, Maeda S, et al (1995) Indication and procedure of manual reduction and subcapital osteotomy for slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Peterson MD, Weiner DS, Green NE, et al (1997) Acute slipped capital femoral epiphy- sis: the value and safety of urgent manipulative reduction. Gordon JE, Abrahams MS, Dobbs MB, et al (2002) Early reduction, arthrotomy, and cannulated screw ﬁxation in unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis treatment. Kumm DA, Lee SH, Hackenbroch MH, et al (2001) Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a prospective study of dynamic screw ﬁxation. Kamegaya M, Saisu T, Ochiai N, et al (2005) Preoperative assessment for intertrochan- teric femoral osteotomies in severe chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis using computed tomography. J Pediatr Orthop B 14:71–78 Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Motoaki Katano, Naonobu Takahira, Sumitaka Takasaki, Katsufumi Uchiyama, and Moritoshi Itoman Summary. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a comparatively rare disorder with various new treatment modalities. Among unilateral SCFE patients, there were 7 acute, 6 acute on chronic, and 16 chronic SCFE. Pinning was performed on 11, osteotomy on 9, and in situ pinning on 9 hips. Postoperative complications of avascular necrosis of the femoral head were noted in 7 hips (24. For acute SCFE, we perform gentle reduction by traction and epiphysiodesis. Opinions remain divided concerning unaffected-side prophylactic ﬁxation; however, we consider observation sufﬁcient. Femoral head avascular necrosis is caused by failure of the remaining capital nutrient vessels. In future reports, we will include many more cases with these procedures, focusing on improved results and patient beneﬁts. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Epiphysiodesis, Prophylaxis, In situ pinning, Osteotomy Introduction Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a comparatively rare disorder; however, various new methods for its treatment have been reported. The various treatments offer methods for gentle reduction by traction, manual reduction, internal ﬁxation, and osteotomy. We have investi- gated clinical and radiographic evaluation of the patients suffering from SCFE who have undergone surgical therapy in our hospital. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan 9 10 M. Materials and Methods There were 27 patients (23 males, 4 females) in the present study, with 29 hips treated surgically from 1971 to 2004 in the Kitasato University Hospital. Among the patients with unilateral SCFE, there were 7 acute, 6 acute on chronic, and 16 chronic SCFE. The underlying disease was Down syndrome; hypothyroidism was seen in 1 hip, eunuch- oidism and Frohlich’s syndrome were seen in 1 hip, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) with short-stature chronic renal failure was seen in 1 hip. Clinical evaluations of treatment methods, prophylactic ﬁxation of the unaffected side, rehabilitation, complications, and radiographic evaluation of the PTA were investigated. Results Of the surgically treated cases, pinning (cannulated screw ﬁxation) was performed on 11 hips, osteotomy on 9 hips, and in situ pinning on 9 hips. According to the classiﬁca- tion of severity, pinning was performed on 6 hips and osteotomy was performed on 1 hip of an acute slip. Pinning was performed on 1 hip, osteotomy on 6 hips, and in situ pinning on 9 hips of chronic slips. Pinning was performed on 4 hips and osteotomy was performed on 2 hips in acute on chronic slips (Table 1). Prophylactic ﬁxation of the unaffected side was performed on 13 hips (44. For rehabilitation, partial weight-bearing started after 6 weeks, and brace support for non-weight-bearing was applied in 6 cases. Postoperative complications of avascular necrosis of the femoral head were noted in 7 hips (24.
In addition to the induction of COX-2 in inﬂammatory lesions levitra 10 mg on-line being overweight causes erectile dysfunction, it is present constitutively in the brain and spinal cord levitra 10 mg free shipping drinking causes erectile dysfunction, where it may be involved in nerve transmission, particularly that for pain and fever. The discovery of COX-2 has made possible the design of drugs that reduce inﬂammation without removing the protective prostaglandins in the stomach and kidney made by COX-1. Table 1 Dosage Guidelines for Commonly Used NSAIDs Dose (mg=kg) Maximum adult Generic name frequency daily dose (mg) Comments Salicylates (aspirin) 10–15 q 4 hr 4000 Inhibits platelet aggregation, GI irritability, Reye syndrome Choline magnesium 7. The most commonly used agonists of the mu receptor include mor- phine, meperidine, methadone, and the fentanyls. Mixed agonist–antagonist drugs (pentazocine, butorphanol, buprenorphine, and nalbuphine) act as agonists or par- tial agonists at one opioid receptor (e. Many factors are considered including pain intensity, patient age, co-existing disease, potential drug interactions, prior treatment history, physician preference, patient preference, and route of administration when deciding which is the appropri- ate opioid analgesic to administer. At equipotent doses most opioids have similar effects and side effects (Table 2). Codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone are opiates frequently used to treat pain in children and adults, particularly for less severe pain. In equipotent doses, they are equal both as analgesics and respiratory depressants (Table 2). These drugs have a bioavailability of approximately 60% following oral ingestion. Their analgesic effects occur as early as 20 min following ingestion and reach a maximum at 60–120 min; their plasma half-lives of elimination are 2. Sustained-release oxycodone is for use only in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic pain, and not for routine postoperative pain. Morphine is also very effective when given orally, but only about 20–30% of an oral dose reaches the systemic circulation. Oral morphine is available as a liquid, tablet, and sustained-release preparation. The liquid is particularly easy to adminis- ter to children and severely debilitated patients. Indeed, in terminal patients who cannot swallow, liquid morphine will provide analgesia when simply dropped into the patient’s mouth. Patient (Parent and Nurse) Controlled Analgesia In order to give patients, and, in some cases, parents and nurses, some measure of control over their, or their children’s, pain therapy demand analgesia or patient- controlled analgesia (PCA) devices have been developed. These are microprocessor- driven pumps with a button that the patient presses to self-administer a small dose of opioid. The PCA devices allow patients to administer small amounts of an analgesic whenever they feel a need for more pain relief. The opioid, usually morphine, hydro- morphone, or fentanyl is administered either intravenously or subcutaneously. The dosage of opioid, number of boluses per hour, and the time interval between boluses (the ‘‘lock-out period’’) are programmed to allow maximum patient ﬂexibility and sense of control with minimal risk of overdosage (Table 3). Typically, we initially prescribe morphine, 20 mcg=kg per bolus, at a rate of 5 boluses=hr, with a 6–8 min lock-out interval between each bolus. Variations include larger boluses (30–50 mcg=kg) and shorter time intervals (5 min). Hydromorphone may have fewer side effects than morphine and is often used when pruritus and nausea complicate morphine PCA therapy. Because it is 5–7 times more potent than morphine, the size of the hydromorphone bolus dose is reduced to 3–4 mcg=kg. Although fentanyl is considered 50–100 times more potent than morphine when given as a single bolus, a conversion of 40:1 was used in a study in which par- ents and nurses controlled the PCA pump. Management of Pediatric Pain 247 248 Lee and Myson Yaster Table 3 Intravenous PCA Treatment Guidelines Drug Basal rate Bolus rate Lock out (concentration range range interval range Number of mg=mL) (mg=kg=hr) (mg=kg) (min) boluses=hr range Morphine (1. A continuous background infusion is particularly useful at night and often provides more restful sleep by preventing the patient from awakening in pain but increases the potential for overdosage. The PCA requires a patient with enough intelligence and manual dexterity and strength to operate the pump.
While it is possible you will not have to set and mark other forms of written test effective 20mg levitra erectile dysfunction vitamins, it is almost certain that you will have to participate in some way in writing or administering objective tests discount levitra 10mg overnight delivery impotence yahoo answers. Choosing the type of question You must find out or decide which type of item you will be using. Objective items can be classified into three groups: true-false, multiple-choice and matching. We would suggest you avoid the more complex matching types 141 which, in some examinations, often seem to behave more like tests of reading ability, rather then tests of the course content! For a variety of technical reasons, experts favour multiple-choice over true-false and other types of objective items. True-false questions Examples of true-false questions are shown in Figures 8. The simple type will obviously cause you the least problems in construction and scoring. The more complex multiple type (also know as the cluster type) is very popular because it allows a series of questions to be asked relating to a single stem or topic. However, the questions may also be considered as a group with full marks given only if all the questions are correct and part-marks given if varying proportions of the questions are correct. Research has shown that the ranking of students is unaltered by the marking scheme used, so simplicity should be the guiding principle. Multiple-choice questions An example of a simple multiple-choice question (MCQ) is shown in Figure 8. The MCQ illustrated is made up of a stem (‘In a 40 year old’) and five alternative answers. Of these alternatives one is correct and the others are known as ‘distractors’. One advantage of the MCQ over the true-false question is a reduction in the influence of guessing. Obviously, in a simple true-false question there is a 50 per cent chance of guessing the correct answer. In a one from five MCQ there is only a 20 per cent chance of doing so if all the distractors 143 are working effectively. Unfortunately it is hard to achieve this ideal and exam-wise students may easily be able to eliminate one or two distractors and thus reduce the number of options from which they have to guess. Information about the effectiveness of the distractors is usually available after the examination if it has been computer-marked. Some advocate the use of correction formulas for guessing but this does not – on balance - appear to be worth the effort and may add an additional student-related bias to the results. If you intend to use multiple-choice questions you should take particular note of the points in Figure 8. It is possible to develop questions with a more complex stem which may require a degree of analysis before the answer is chosen. Such items are sometimes known as context-dependent multiple-choice questions. One or more multiple-choice questions are based on stimulus material which may be presented in the form of a clinical scenario, a diagram, a graph, a table of data, a statement from a text or research report, a photograph and so on. This approach is useful if one wishes to attempt to test the student’s ability at a higher intellectual level than simple recognition and recall of factual information. Extended-matching questions The technical limitations of conventional objective-type items for use in medical examinations has stimulated a search for alternative forms which retain the technical advantages of computer scoring. Many such efforts have achieved little more than increasing complexity and confusion for students. However, the extended matching question (EMQ) is becoming increasingly popular. The main technical advantage is the reduced impact of cueing by increasing the number of distractors. Other advantages include ease of construction and flexibility as they work equally well for basic science as for clinical areas. However, they are particularly well suited for testing diagnostic and management skills. The EMQ is typically made up of four parts: a theme of related concepts; a list of options; a lead-in statement to direct students; and two or more item sterns. The item shown includes two stems that illustrate how this EMQ might test at different levels.
Fosphenytoin and Phenytoin Fosphenytoin is a prodrug of phenytoin that is rapidly converted to phenytoin by blood and organ phosphatases generic levitra 20 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction doctor philadelphia. Its chemical properties allow it to be administered without the propylene glycol carrier required for phenytoin order levitra 20 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction gabapentin, which is responsible for many of the potentially severe side effects of IV phenytoin administration. Fosphenytoin (or phenytoin) begins to act 10–30 min after IV administration. Given in a loading dose, these drugs reach a therapeutic level fairly rapidly, without signiﬁ- cant respiratory depression or sedation. Following resolution of SE, fosphenytoin treatment can be converted to oral phenytoin maintenance therapy. Phenobarbital Phenobarbital can be used for SE in all age groups, and continues to be the medication of choice for neonatal seizures. Since respiratory and CNS depression are common side effects, phenobarbital is typically used to treat SE only after benzodiazepines and phenytoin have failed. Sodium Valproate TM An intravenous formulation of sodium valproate (Depacon ) is now available and may be effective in the treatment of SE in children and adults. It can be given as a loading dose, with subsequent maintenance dosing, and is not signiﬁcantly sedating. The child should receive further treatment in an intensive care unit setting, and airway should be protected and ventilation controlled via intubation. Aggressive pharmacologic therapy should be applied with the goal of immediately stopping SE. Options include high dose barbiturates (pentobarbital and phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam), as well as other IV anesthetic agents including thiopental, lidocaine, and inhalational anesthetics including isoﬂurane and propofol. Pentobarbital has been the most widely used agent in refractory SE, usually titrated to suppression of EEG background. Midazolam is better tolerated and less sedating, although the frequency of breakthrough seizures may be higher. Careful EEG monitoring should be used, and drugs titrated until clinical and electrographic seizures are controlled. Maintenance drug therapy should be instituted prior to weaning aggressive therapy, in order to prevent seizure recurrence. Prognosis Status epilepticus can be associated with signiﬁcant morbidity both in children and adults, and in children the mortality from SE has been reported as high as 10%. The prognosis of SE depends on etiology, type of SE, age of the child, and duration of SE. Generalized tonic clonic SE can be associated with morbidity including subse- quent seizures as well as developmental deterioration; absence SE typically has few if any lasting sequelae. Outcomes of SE in childhood are better with either febrile or idiopathic SE than symptomatic SE. Status epilepticus: a review of different syndromes, their current evaluation, and treatment. Status Epilepticus: Its Clinical Features and Treatment in Children and Adults. Freeman Pediatrics and Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, U. INTRODUCTION A seizure is a transient alteration in motor function, sensation, or consciousness due to an electrical discharge in the brain. The most important aspect of management of a child with a ﬁrst seizure-like episode is reassurance: do not just do something, stand there and be reassuring! IMPORTANCE OF HISTORY IN DIAGNOSIS OF AN EPISODE A child does not present with a ﬁrst seizure, but rather with a ﬁrst recognized ‘‘epi- sode. Since neither an EEG or a scan can diagnosis a seizure, the only way of making this differentiation is by a care- ful history. Timing the observer’s memory of the event from start to ﬁnish may provide a better estimate of the spell’s duration than asking the observer to estimate the dura- tion. Make the observer aware that the seizure ended at the termination of the shak- ing, not after the sleep-like postictal state that often follows a major seizure.
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